Test Bank Negotiation 8th Edition By Roy Lewicki
Negotiation, 8e (Lewicki)
Chapter 1 The Nature of Negotiation
1) The term ________ refers to win-win situations such as those that occur when parties are trying to find a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict.
2) The term ________ is used in the text to describe the competitive, win-lose situations such as haggling over price that happens at yard sale, flea market, or used car lot.
3) Negotiating parties always negotiate by ________.
4) The need to maintain a good relationship with the other party after the negotiation is over, primarily by maintaining trust and reducing uncertainty is an example of a(n) ________ factor in the negotiation process.
5) Successful negotiation involves the management of ________ (e.g., the price or the terms of agreement) and also the resolution of ________.
6) ________ parties are able to meet their own needs without the help and assistance of others.
7) Interlocking goals characterize ________ parties—the parties need each other in order to accomplish their objectives and each has the potential to influence the other party.
8) When the goals of two or more people are interconnected in a competitive situation where there will be only one winner, there is a ________ correlation between their goal attainments.
9) When parties' goals are linked so that one person's goal achievement helps others to achieve their goals, there is a ________ correlation between the goal attainments of both parties.
10) Whether you should or should not agree on something in a negotiation depends entirely upon the attractiveness to you of the best available alternative. The acronym for this alternative is ________.
11) Negotiation is a process that transforms over time, and ________ adjustment is one of the key causes of the changes that occur during a negotiation.
12) Negotiations often begin with statements of opening ________ where each party states its most preferred settlement proposal.
13) The ________ range is the range of possible agreements between the two parties' minimally acceptable settlements.
14) Two dilemmas in mutual adjustment that all negotiators face are the dilemma of honesty and the dilemma of ________.
15) When negotiators employ win-lose strategies and tactics in a zero-sum situation, this approach to negation is called ________ bargaining.
16) ________ conflict affects the ability of the group to make decisions, work productively, resolve its differences, and continue to achieve its goals effectively.
17) Most people initially believe that ________ is always bad or dysfunctional.
18) In non-zero-sum or mutual gains situations, negotiators should employ win-win strategies and tactics. This approach to negotiation is called ________ negotiation.
19) The two-dimensional framework called the ________ model postulates that people in conflict have two independent types of concern.
20) Threats, punishment, intimidation, and unilateral action are consistent with a ________ strategy for conflict management.
21) Negotiation is a process reserved only for the skilled diplomat, top salesperson, or ardent advocate for an organized lobby.
22) Many of the most important factors that shape a negotiation result do not occur during the negotiation, but occur after the parties have negotiated.
23) Negotiation situations have the same fundamental characteristics.
24) A creative negotiation that meets the objectives of all sides may not require compromise.
25) One characteristic common to all negotiation situations is that both parties negotiate by choice, as negotiation is largely a voluntary process.
26) Examples of tangible factors in the negotiation process is the need to "win," the need to look "good," and the need to appear "fair."
27) When the goals of two or more people are interconnected so that only one can achieve the goal—such as running a race in which there will be only one winner—this is a competitive situation, also known as a non-zero-sum or distributive situation.
28) A zero-sum situation is a situation in which individuals are so linked together that there is a positive correlation between their goal attainments.
29) When entering negotiation, a prepared negotiator will understand their own BATNA as well as the other party's BATNA.
30) In any industry in which repeat business is done with the same parties, there is always a balance between pushing the limit on any particular negotiation and making sure the other party—and your relationship with him—survives intact.
31) Remember that every possible interdependency has an alternative; negotiators can always say "no" and walk away.
32) The effective negotiator needs to understand how people will adjust and readjust, and how the negotiations might twist and turn, based on one's own moves and the others' responses.
33) Concessions restrict the range of solution agreement options, but concessions broaden the bargaining range of the negotiations.
34) Non-zero-sum situations are ones where many people can achieve their goals and objectives.
35) When deciding how to use concessions, negotiators may face the dilemma of honesty—how much they should believe what the other party tells them.
36) Differences in time preferences have the potential to create value in a negotiation.
37) When two negotiating parties are working toward the same goal and generally want the same outcome, there is no chance for conflict.
38) Intragroup conflict occurs between groups.
39) Negotiation is a strategy for productively managing conflict.
40) The dual concerns model has two dimensions: the vertical dimension is often referred to as the cooperativeness dimension, and the horizontal dimension as the assertiveness dimension.
41) According to the text, which of the following is not a reason negotiation occurs?
A) to create something new that neither party could do on their own
B) to resolve a problem or dispute between parties
C) to agree on how to share or divide a limited resource, such as land, or money, or time
D) to agree on a price and end the haggling over a used car
42) To most people unfamiliar with the textbook, the words "bargaining" and "negotiation" are
A) mutually exclusive.
C) not related.
43) A situation in which both parties are trying to find a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict is known as which of the following?
44) Which is not a characteristic of all negotiation situations?
A) conflict between parties
B) two or more parties involved
C) an established set of rules
D) a voluntary process
45) Tangible factors
A) include the price or terms of agreement.
B) are psychological motivations that influence the negotiations.
C) include the need to look good in negotiations.
D) cannot be measured in quantifiable terms.
46) Which of the following is not an intangible factor in a negotiation?
A) the need to look good
B) final agreed upon price on a contract
C) the need to appear "fair" or "honorable"
D) to maintain a good relationship
47) Interdependent parties' relationships are characterized by
A) interlocking goals.
B) solitary decision making.
C) established procedures.
D) rigid structures.
48) A zero-sum situation is also known by another name. Which of the following terms means the same thing as "zero-sum"?
C) mutual gains
D) mutual adjustment
49) BATNA stands for
A) best alternative to a negotiated agreement.
B) best assignment to a negotiated agreement.
C) best alternative to a negative agreement.
D) best alternative to a negative assignment.
50) What are the two dilemmas of negotiation?
A) the dilemma of cost and the dilemma of profit margin
B) the dilemma of honesty and the dilemma of profit margin
C) the dilemma of trust and the dilemma of cost
D) the dilemma of honesty and the dilemma of trust
51) Which of the following statements is not true of concessions?
A) A concession happens when one party suggests alterations to the other party's proposal.
B) Concessions restrict the range of solution options.
C) When a party makes a concession, the bargaining range is constrained.
D) A concession happens when one party agrees to make change in their own position.
52) Which of the following situations would be appropriate for a value claiming strategy or tactic?
A) a mutual gains situation
B) an integrative situation
C) a distributive situation
D) a situation in which many people can achieve their goals and objectives
53) Which of the following situation would be appropriate for a value creating tactic or strategy?
A) a distributive situation
B) a non-zero-sum situation
C) a situation where there can be only one winner
D) a zero-sum situation
54) One of the four levels of conflict is intragroup conflict. Which of the following descriptions fit intragroup conflict?
A) These conflicts occur within an individual.
B) These conflicts occur between organizations, ethnic groups, warring nations, or feuding families.
C) These conflicts occur among team and work group members and within families, classes, living units, and tribes.
D) These conflicts occur between co-workers, spouses, siblings, roommates, or neighbors.
55) Which of the following contribute to conflict's destructive image?
A) increased communication
B) misperception and bias
C) clarifying issues
D) minimized differences; magnified similarities
56) Conflicts with which of the following characteristics should be considered "easy to resolve" or be settled quickly?
A) situations involving matters of "principle," such as values or ethics
B) situations with disorganized, or weak leadership
C) situations involving large or big consequences
D) situations involving long-term relationships with expected future interaction
57) An individual who pursues his or her own outcomes strongly and shows little concern for whether the other party obtains their desired outcomes is using which of the following strategies?
D) problem solving
58) Negotiators pursuing the yielding strategy
A) show little interest or concern in whether they attain their own outcomes, but are quite interested in whether the other party attains his or her outcomes.
B) pursue their own outcome strongly and shows little concern for whether the other party obtains his or her desired outcome.
C) show little interest or concern in whether they attain their own outcomes, and does not show much concern about whether the other party obtains his or her outcomes.
D) show high concern for attaining their own outcomes and high concern for whether the other party attains his or her outcomes.
59) Parties pursuing which strategy shows little interest or concern in whether they attain their own outcomes, and do not show much concern about whether the other party obtains his or her outcomes?
60) Which of the following situations would the integrating style of conflict management be inappropriate?
A) when issues are complex
B) when you believe you may be wrong
C) when one party alone cannot solve the problem
D) when an immediate decision is required
61) What are the three reasons negotiations occur?
62) Is the give-and-take process used to reach an agreement the "heart of the negotiation" as most people assume?
63) Is negotiation a voluntary decision, or are we required to negotiate?
64) Briefly define tangible and intangible factors in negotiation?
65) What are the three ways that characterize most relationships between parties?
66) Define a "zero-sum" situation.
67) Describe a "mutual gains" situation.
68) What is BATNA an acronym for?
69) What role do concessions play when a proposal isn't readily accepted?
70) What are concessions in the negotiation process?
71) Describe the strategies and tactics a negotiator would employ in a distributive bargaining situation.
72) Why should negotiators be versatile in their comfort and use of both value claiming and value creating strategic approaches?
73) Define synergy.
74) List the commonly identified four levels of conflict.
75) Explain how conflict is a potential consequence of interdependent relationships.
76) How does decreased communication contribute as one of the destructive images of conflict in a negotiation?
77) Conflict also has productive aspects and one of those is that conflict encourages psychological development. Elaborate.
78) The Dual Concerns Model is a two-dimensional framework that postulates that people in conflict have two independent types of concern. What are those two types of concerns?
79) Describe where on the dual concerns model you would find the "yielding" strategy and briefly describe the yielding strategy.
80) List the five major strategies for conflict management (as identified in the Dual Concerns model)?