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Test Bank For Forensic Psychology 4th edition by Joanna Pozzulo; Craig Bennell; Adelle

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Test Bank For Forensic Psychology 4th edition by Joanna Pozzulo; Craig Bennell; Adelle

 

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD What student Can You Expect From A Test Bank?              A test bank will include the following questions:        

 

Description

  Forensic Psychology 4th edition by Joanna Pozzulo; Craig Bennell; Adelle

Chapter 3: Short Answer

 

1) List the two primary goals of a police interrogation. In addition, describe the three types of false confessions that can result from North American–style police interrogation techniques, making it very clear how they differ from one another.

 

Answer:

  • The two primary goals of a police interrogation are:
    1. To gain information that will further the investigation
    2. To obtain a confession from the suspect
  • The three types of false confessions are:
    1. Voluntary false confession: The suspect confesses voluntarily to a crime he/she did not commit without elicitation or coercion from a police interrogator.
    2. Coerced-compliant false confession: Although fully aware of his/her innocence, the suspect confesses to a crime he/she did not commit as a product of coercive interrogation techniques used by the police.
    3. Coerced-internalized false confession: The suspect recalls and confesses to a crime he/she did not commit, usually after being exposed to suggestible questions by interrogators.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 60, 72-75

 

2) What is the name of the interrogation model that is most often taught to police officers in North America? Briefly describe the model’s three stages.

 

Answer:

  • The model of interrogation that is most often taught to police officers in North America is the Reid model of interrogation.
  • Stage 1: gather crime-related evidence and interview witnesses and victims
  • Stage 2: conduct a non-accusatorial interview of the suspect to assess guilt
  • Stage 3: if the suspect is perceived to be guilty, conduct an accusatorial interrogation of the suspect using the nine-step procedure in order to obtain a confession

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 62-63

 

3) What does the acronym for the PEACE model of interrogation stand for? Briefly describe the primary goal of this model, and provide one example of how Canadian police officers are not adhering o the principles advocated by the PEACE model.

 

Answer:

  • PEACE is an acronym for planning and preparation, engage and explain, account, closure, and evaluation.
  • this model provides an inquisitorial framework within which to conduct police interrogations (compared with the accusatorial framework used in the Reid model) and is based on an interview method known as conversation management, which encourages information gathering more than securing a confession
  • As highlighted above, rather than focusing on extracting confessions, the primary goal of a PEACE interview would be to obtain complete and accurate information about the crime in question; information that will ultimately allow investigators to conduct a more efficient and effective investigation
  • Canadian interrogators rarely rely on questioning practices that will allow them to maximize the amount of complete and accurate information that is collected. For example, open-ended questions were used much less frequently (<1% of all questions) than close-ended questions (approximately 40% of all questions) in the interviews analyzed by Snook et al., despite the fact that research consistently demonstrates that an interviewer can extract a higher quantity of information from suspects, and more accurate information, when they allow the interviewee to do most of the talking.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 69-70

 

4) Define what is meant by minimization and maximization techniques and provide one example of each technique.

 

Answer:

  • Minimization techniques: soft sell interrogation tactics used by the police in an attempt to draw the suspect into a false sense of security (e.g., offering justifications for the offence, showing sympathy, making excuses, etc.)
  • Maximization techniques: scare tactics used by the police in an attempt to intimidate the suspect who is believed to be guilty (e.g., making false claims of evidence, exaggerating the seriousness of the offence, etc.)

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 63

 

5) Distinguish between a retracted confession and a disputed confession.

 

Answer:

  Retracted confession: involves a suspect/defendant declaring that the confession he or she made is false

  Disputed confession: involves a confession that is challenged in court due to legal technicalities or because a suspect/defendant denies the confession was ever made

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 71-72

 

6) What are the three main categories of false confessions proposed by Kassin and Wrightsman (1985)? Describe each and identify the circumstances under which each are likely to arise.

 

Answer:

Voluntary false confessions occur when someone voluntarily confesses to a crime he or she did not commit without any elicitation from the police. Research has indicated that people voluntarily false confess for a variety of reasons. For example, Gudjonsson (1992) suggested that such confessions may arise out of (1) a morbid desire for notoriety, (2) the person being unable to distinguish fact from fantasy, (3) the need to make up for pathological feelings of guilt by receiving punishment, or (4) a desire to protect somebody else from harm (which may be particularly prevalent among juveniles).

 

Coerced-compliant false confessions are those in which the suspect confesses to a crime, even though the suspect is fully aware that he or she did not commit it. This type of false confession is perhaps the most common ( Gudjonsson & MacKeith, 1988 ). Unlike voluntary false confessions, these confessions are caused by the use of coercive interrogation tactics on the part of the police, such as the maximization techniques described earlier. Specifically, coerced-compliant confessions may be given so the suspect can (1) escape further interrogation, (2) gain a promised benefit, or (3) avoid a threatened punishment ( Gudjonsson, 1992 ).

 

The third, and perhaps the most bizarre type of false confession proposed by Kassin and Wrightsman (1985 ) is the coerced-internalized false confession . Here, individuals recall and confess to a crime they did not commit, usually after they are exposed to highly suggestible questions, such as the minimization techniques described earlier in the chapter ( Gudjonsson, 2003 ). In contrast to the coerced-compliant false confessor, however, these individuals actually end up believing they are responsible for the crime. According to Gudjonsson (1992) , several vulnerability factors are associated with this type of false confession, including (1) a history of substance abuse or some other interference with brain function, (2) the inability of people to detect discrepancies between what they observed and what has been erroneously suggested to them, and (3) factors associated with mental state, such as severe anxiety, confusion, or feelings of guilt.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 72-74

 

7) Define criminal profiling in general terms and provide four main goals of criminal profiling.

 

Answer:

  • Criminal profiling is a method by which one attempts to identify personality, behavioural, and/or demographic characteristics of an offender on the basis of the characteristics of the crimes he or she has committed.
  • Goals of criminal profiling:
    1. To flush out an offender
    2. To determine whether a threatening note should be taken seriously
    3. To provide advice on how to best interrogate a suspect
    4. To provide prosecutors with strategies that will help them “break down” the suspect/defendant in cross-examination

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 80

 

8) What is the equation specified by Pinizzotto and Finkel (1990) that describes the process of criminal profiling? Define or explain each component of the equation.

 

Answer:

  • WHAT + WHY = WHO
    1. WHAT refers to the material collected by profilers at the onset of the investigation (e.g., crime scene photos, autopsy reports, descriptions of victims, etc.).
    2. WHY refers to the motivation for the crime as reflected in the crime scene behaviours of the offender.
    3. WHO refers to the actual profile that is constructed (i.e., the personality, behavioural, and demographic features of the unknown offenders).

 

Diff: Hard

Type: ES

Page Reference: 83-84

 

9) Distinguish between deductive criminal profiling and inductive criminal profiling. Identify a problem associated with each method.

 

Answer:

  • Deductive profiling: involves the prediction of an offender’s background characteristics by analysing the crime scene evidence left by that particular offender. The main problem with this approach is that the logical foundations upon which the profiling predictions are based might be flawed.
  • Inductive profiling: involves the prediction of an offender’s background characteristics on the basis of a statistical comparison of that particular offender’s crimes with similar crimes committed by other, known offenders. The main problem with this approach is that it will never be possible to obtain a representative sample of offenders from which to draw valid profiling conclusions.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 84

 

10) List five crime scene behaviours that are assumed to relate to organized offenders and five crime scene behaviours that are assumed to related to disorganized offenders.

 

Answer:

  • Organized: planned offence, use of restraints, ante-mortem sexual acts, use of vehicle in the crime, no post-mortem mutilation, corpse not taken, little evidence left at the scene
  • Disorganized: spontaneous offence, no restraints used, post-mortem sexual acts, no use of vehicle in the crime, post-mortem mutilation, corpse or body parts taken, evidence left at the scene

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 85

 

11) List five background characteristics that are assumed to relate to organized offenders and five background characteristics that are assumed to related to disorganized offenders.

 

Answer:

  • Organized: high intelligence, skilled occupation, sexually adequate, lives with a partner, geographically mobile, lives & works far away from crimes, follows crimes in media, maintains residence and vehicle
  • Disorganized: low intelligence, unskilled occupation, sexually inadequate, lives alone, geographically stable, lives & works close to crimes, little interest in media, does not maintain residence or vehicle

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 85

 

12) State four general criticisms of criminal profiling.

 

Answer:

  • The theoretical model upon which criminal profiling is based (i.e., the classic trait approach) lacks strong empirical support.
  • The core psychological assumptions underlying profiling currently lack strong empirical support.
  • Profiles usually contain information that is vague and ambiguous. Research suggests that such information can be interpreted to fit a wide range of suspects (even if those suspects are quite different from one another).
  • In terms of the accuracy of profiles constructed, professional profilers appear to be no better than certain untrained individuals (e.g., psychologists).

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 86