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Solution Manual for Managerial Accounting 9th Canadian Edition by Garrison

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Solution Manual for Managerial Accounting 9th Canadian Edition by Garrison

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Chapter 2

Cost Terms, Concepts, and Classifications

Solutions to Questions

 

2-1     The three major elements of product costs in a manufacturing company are direct materials, direct labour, and manufacturing overhead.

2-2

  1. Direct materials are an integral part of a finished product and their costs can be conveniently traced to it.
  2. Indirect materials are generally small items of material such as glue and nails. They may be an integral part of a finished product but their costs can be traced to the product only at great cost or inconvenience. Indirect materials are ordinarily classified as manufacturing overhead.
  3. Direct labour includes those labour costs that can be easily traced to individual units of products. Direct labour is also called “touch labour.”
  4. Indirect labour includes the labour costs of janitors, supervisors, materials handlers, and other factory workers that cannot be conveniently traced directly to particular products. These labour costs are incurred to support production, but the workers involved do not directly work on the product.
  5. Manufacturing overhead includes all manufacturing costs except direct materials and direct labour.

2-3     A product cost is any cost involved in purchasing or manufacturing goods. In the case of manufactured goods, these costs consist of direct materials, direct labour, and manufacturing overhead. A period cost is a cost that is taken directly to the income statement as an expense in the period in which it is incurred.

2-4     Marketing or selling costs are those costs incurred to secure customer orders and to deliver the finished product or service into the hands of the customer. They are always treated as period costs on the income statement. As a result, they are expensed in the period incurred.

2-5     The schedule of cost of goods manufactured lists the manufacturing costs that have been incurred during the period. These costs are organized under the three major categories of direct materials, direct labour, and manufacturing overhead. The total costs incurred are adjusted for any change in the Work in Process inventory to determine the cost of goods manufactured (i.e. finished) during the period.

The schedule of cost of goods manufactured ties into the income statement through the Cost of Goods Sold section. The cost of goods manufactured is added to the beginning Finished Goods inventory to determine the goods available for sale. In effect, the cost of goods manufactured takes the place of the “Purchases” account in a merchandising firm.

2-6     Prime costs consist of direct materials and direct labour. Conversion costs consist of manufacturing overhead and direct labour.

2-7     Total manufacturing costs are the total costs of direct materials, direct labour and manufacturing overhead incurred in the current period for products that are both complete and partially complete at the end of the period. Cost of goods manufactured represents the direct materials, direct labour and manufacturing overhead costs for goods completed during the period. Cost of goods manufactured = Total manufacturing costs + beginning WIP – ending WIP.

2-8     Yes, costs such as salaries and depreciation can end up as assets on the balance sheet if these are manufacturing costs. Manufacturing costs are inventoried until the associated finished goods are sold. Thus, if some units are still in inventory, such costs may be part of either Work in Process inventory or Finished Goods inventory at the end of a period.

2-9     Cost behaviour refers to how a cost will react or respond to changes in the level of activity.

2-10  No. A variable cost is a cost that varies, in total, in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. A variable cost is constant per unit of product. A fixed cost is fixed in total, but will vary inversely on an average cost per-unit basis with changes in the level of activity.

2-11  The relevant range is the range of activity within which assumptions about variable and fixed costs are valid. The relevant range is important when predicting costs because cost behaviour may change when activity levels are well below or well above the normal range of activity. For example, if the relevant range of production activity is 10,000 to 20,000 units and next year, 30,000 units of production are expected, both variable and fixed costs may change. Fixed costs will likely increase as the result of needing to expand production capacity; depreciation, insurance, rent, taxes and so on will rise. Variable costs per unit may also change as production volume increases to 30,000 units. Buying raw materials in larger quantities may drive down unit costs but hiring additional employees could result in higher hourly wages if there is a shortage of available labour. Thus, managers will have to estimate the effects of production exceeding the relevant range on both variable and fixed cost behaviour.
2-12  Manufacturing overhead is an indirect cost since these costs cannot be easily and conveniently traced to particular units of products.

2-13  A differential cost is a cost that differs between alternatives in a decision. An opportunity cost is the potential benefit that is given up when one alternative is selected over another. A sunk cost is a cost that has already been incurred and cannot be altered by any decision taken now or in the future.

2-14  No; differential costs can be either variable or fixed. For example, the alternatives might consist of purchasing one machine rather than another to make a product. The difference in the fixed costs of purchasing the two machines would be a differential cost.

2-15

Direct labour cost
(46 hours ´ $18 per hour) ..
$828
Manufacturing overhead cost
(6 hours ´ $9 per hour) ……
   54
Total wages earned………………. $882

 

2-16

Direct labour cost
(35 hours ´ $26 per hour) ..
$910
Manufacturing overhead cost
(5 hours ´ $26 per hour) ….
   130
Total wages earned………………. $1,040

 

Exercise 2-1 (15 minutes)

  1. The wages of employees who build the sailboats: direct labour cost.

 

  1. The cost of advertising in the local newspapers: marketing and selling cost.

 

  1. The cost of an aluminum mast installed in a sailboat: direct materials cost.

 

  1. The wages of the assembly shop’s supervisor: manufacturing overhead cost.

 

  1. Rent on the boathouse: a combination of manufacturing overhead, administrative, and marketing and selling cost. The rent would most likely be prorated on the basis of the amount of space occupied by manufacturing, administrative, and marketing operations.

 

  1. The wages of the company’s bookkeeper: administrative cost.

 

  1. Sales commissions paid to the company’s salespeople: marketing and selling cost.

 

  1. Depreciation on power tools: manufacturing overhead cost.

Exercise 2-2 (15 minutes)

    Product
(Inventoriable) Cost
Period Cost
1. Depreciation on salespersons’ cars………………………….   X
2. Rent on equipment used in the factory………………….. X  
3. Lubricants used for machine maintenance……………… X  
4. Salaries of personnel who work in the finished goods warehouse…………………………………………………………..   X
5. Soap and paper towels used by factory workers at the end of a shift………………………………………………… X  
6. Factory supervisors’ salaries…………………………………… X  
7. Heat, water, and power consumed in the factory……. X  
8. Materials used for boxing products for shipment overseas (units are not normally boxed)………………   X
9. Advertising costs…………………………………………………….   X
10. Workers’ compensation insurance for factory employees………………………………………………………….. X  
11. Depreciation on chairs and tables in the factory lunchroom………………………………………………………….. X  
12. The wages of the receptionist in the administrative offices…………………………………………………………………   X
13. Cost of leasing the corporate jet used by the company’s executives………………………………………….   X
14. The cost of renting rooms at a British Columbia resort for the annual sales conference…………………   X
15. The cost of packaging the company’s product……….. X  

Exercise 2-3 (15 minutes)

Mountain High
Income StatementFor the month ended xxx

 

 

Sales……………………………………………………………………………   $3,200,000
Cost of goods sold:    
Beginning merchandise inventory……………………………. $   140,000  
Add: Purchases…………………………………………………………   2,550,000  
Goods available for sale…………………………………………… 2,690,000  
Deduct: Ending merchandise inventory…………………….      180,000  2,510,000
Gross margin……………………………………………………………….   690,000
Selling and administrative expenses:    
Selling expense………………………………………………………… 110,000  
Administrative expense…………………………………………….      470,000     580,000
Operating income………………………………………………………..   $  110,000

 

Exercise 2-4 (15 minutes)

 

Acromould Fabrication

 

Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured

For the month ended xxx

     
Direct materials:    
Beginning raw materials inventory…………………….. $ 66,000  
Add: Purchases of raw materials…………………………  528,000  
Raw materials available for use………………………….. 594,000  
Deduct: Ending raw materials inventory……………..    78,000  
Raw materials used in production………………………   $  516,000
Direct labour…………………………………………………………   258,000
Manufacturing overhead………………………………………      456,000
Total manufacturing costs…………………………………….   1,230,000
Add: Beginning work in process inventory…………….      228,000
    1,458,000
Deduct: Ending work in process inventory…………….      264,000
Cost of goods manufactured………………………………..   $1,194,000

Exercise 2-5 (30 minutes)

  1. Per unit amounts:
Item      
 

 

Variable expenses:

 

 

Amount

July

 

Activity

 

 

Per Unit

   Direct materials $200,000 1,000 $200
   Direct labour $30,000 1,000 $30
   Indirect materials $10,000 1,000 $10
 

 

Fixed expenses:

     
   Installation supervisor’s wages $4,000 1,000 $4
   Installation scheduler’s wages $2,000 1,000 $2
   Warehouse expenses $5,000 1,000 $5

 

  1. a & b
Item (1) (2) (3) (3) ÷ (1)
 

 

Variable expenses:

August

 

Activity

July

 

Per Unit

August

 

Total

August

 

Per Unit

   Direct materials 1,200 $200 $240,000 $200
   Direct labour 1,200 $30 $36,000 $30
   Indirect materials 1,200 $10 $12,000 $10
 

 

Fixed expenses:

       
   Installation supervisor’s wages 1,200 n/a $4,000 $3.33
   Installation scheduler’s wages 1,200 n/a $2,000 $1.67
   Warehouse expenses 1,200 n/a $5,000 $4.17

 

  • Variable expenses per unit do not change within the relevant range of activity so the July and August amounts should not differ.
  • Fixed expenses per unit decrease in August because the total fixed expenses are being spread over a higher activity base (1,200 installations versus 1,000).

Exercise 2-5 continued

  1. Factors that could cause variable costs per unit to change when activity levels fall outside the relevant range:
  • Direct material costs per unit could decrease if quantity discounts are received from the manufacturer for larger order quantities.
  • Direct material costs could increase if quantity discounts currently being received are lost if order quantities decrease significantly.
  • Direct labour costs per unit could increase if activity levels increase and installations have to be completed using more expensive overtime hours.
  • Direct labour costs per unit could increase if activity levels decrease and less experienced, and lower paid, installers are laid off.
  • Direct labour costs per unit could decrease as the number of installations increases due to the effects of learning (i.e., the time required for each installation may decrease with experience).

 

Note: requirement three may be a stretch for many students given that the factors affecting cost behaviour outside the relevant range are not discussed in detail in Chapter 2. Accordingly, providing some hints to generate ideas may be warranted.

Exercise 2-6 (15 minutes)

 

Some possibilities:

 

  Direct Costs Indirect Costs**
Hotel Guests* 1. Newspaper provided for the guest in the morning.

 

2. Room repairs resulting from damage caused by guests.

1. Cleaning supplies for the guest’s room.

 

2. Concierge wages.

Hotel Restaurant 1. Salary of the head chef.

 

2. Cleaning supplies used in the restaurant.

1. Fire insurance on the hotel.

 

2. Salary of the hotel’s general manager.

Hotel Fitness Centre 1. Fitness equipment maintenance.

 

2. Personal trainers/lifeguards who work in the fitness centre/pool.

1. Hotel utilities.

 

2. Property taxes on the hotel.

Hotel Business Centre. 1. Computer equipment.

 

2. Printer suppliers (e.g., toner, paper, etc.)

1. Internet charges for the hotel.

 

2. Hotel cleaning staff wages.

 

*Students will struggle to identify direct costs that would pass the cost/benefit test of separate identification with individual guests. Howe ver, this provides a good example of a cost object that direct costs could be accumulated for, but would rarely occur in practice. In service industries such as hospitality, calculating profitability at the customer-level typically involves assigning indirect costs with very few direct costs identified.

**Encourage students to identify two unique indirect costs for each cost object rather than reusing the sample examples.

Exercise 2-7 (15 minutes)

    Differential Opportunity Sunk
  Item Cost Cost Cost
1. Cost of the new flat-panel displays…. X    
2. Cost of the old computer terminals…     X
3. Rent on the space occupied by the registration desk…………………………..      
4. Wages of registration desk personnel      
5. Benefits from a new freezer……………..   X  
6. Costs of maintaining the old computer terminals……………………………………… X    
7. Cost of removing the old computer terminals……………………………………… X    
8. Cost of existing registration desk wiring…………………………………………………….     X

 

Note: The costs of the rent on the space occupied by the registration desk and the wages of registration desk personnel are neither differential costs, opportunity costs, nor sunk costs. These are costs that do not differ between the alternatives and are therefore irrelevant in the decision, but they are not sunk costs since they occur in the future.

Exercise 2-8 (15 minutes)

  1. No. It appears that the overtime spent completing the job was simply a matter of how the job happened to be scheduled. Under these circumstances, an overtime premium probably should not be charged to a customer whose job happens to fall at the tail end of the day’s schedule.

 

2. Direct labour cost: 9 hours × $20 per hour………………….. $180
  General overhead cost: 1 hour × $10 per hour…………….    10
  Total labour cost…………………………………………………………. $190

 

  1. A charge for an overtime premium might be justified if the customer requested that the work be done on a “rush” basis.

Exercise 2-9 (30 minutes)

1. a. USB flash drives purchased 22,000
    USB flash drives drawn from inventory 19,500
    USB flash drives remaining in inventory 2,500
    Cost per USB flash drive     × $6
    Cost in Raw Materials Inventory at May 31 $15,000
       
  b. USB flash drives used in production (19,500 – 500) 19,000
    Units completed and transferred to Finished Goods
(95% × 19,000)
18,050
    Units still in Work in Process at May 31 950
    Cost per flash drive     × $6
    Cost in Work in Process Inventory at May 31 $ 5,700
       
  c. Units completed and transferred to Finished Goods (above) 18,050
    Units sold during the month (80% × 18,050)  14,440
    Units still in Finished Goods at May 31 3,610
    Cost per USB flash drive     × $6
    Cost in Finished Goods Inventory at May 31 $21,660
       
  d. Units sold during the month (above) 14,440
    Cost per USB flash drive     × $6
    Cost in Cost of Goods Sold at May 31 $86,640
       
  e. USB flash drives used in advertising 500
    Cost per USB flash drive     × $6
    Cost in Advertising Expense at May 31 $ 3,000

 

  1. Raw Materials Inventory—balance sheet $15,000
    Work in Process Inventory—balance sheet                   5,700
    Finished Goods Inventory—balance sheet                 21,660
    Cost of Goods Sold—income statement                    86,640
    Advertising Expense—income statement                       3,000

$132,000

Note: the $132,000 above reconciles to the total amount spent on the flash drives on May 1: 22,000 x $6 per unit = $132,000.
Exercise 2-10
 (30 minutes)

1.

 

Eccles Company
Schedule of Cost of Goods ManufacturedFor the year ended xxx
     
Direct materials:    
Raw materials inventory, beginning……………………… $   8,000  
Add: Purchases of raw materials……………………………  132,000  
Raw materials available for use…………………………….. 140,000  
Deduct: Raw materials inventory, ending………………    10,000  
Raw materials used in production…………………………   $130,000
Direct labour……………………………………………………………   90,000
Manufacturing overhead:    
Rent, factory building…………………………………………… $ 80,000  
Indirect labour……………………………………………………… 56,300  
Utilities, factory……………………………………………………. 9,000  
Maintenance, factory equipment…………………………. 24,000  
Supplies, factory………………………………………………….. 700  
Depreciation, factory equipment…………………………..    40,000  
Total manufacturing overhead costs……………………..    210,000
Total manufacturing costs………………………………………..   430,000
Add: Work in process, beginning………………………………        5,000
    435,000
Deduct: Work in process, ending……………………………..      20,000
Cost of goods manufactured……………………………………   $415,000

 

  1. The cost of goods sold section would be:

 

Finished goods inventory, beginning…………………………   $ 70,000
Add: Cost of goods manufactured…………………………….    415,000
Goods available for sale…………………………………………….   485,000
Deduct: Finished goods inventory, ending………………..      25,000
Cost of goods sold…………………………………………………….   $460,000

Exercise 2-11 (15 minutes)

    Cost Behaviour Selling and Administrative Cost Product Cost
   
  Cost Item Variable Fixed
1. The costs of turn signal switches used at a General Motors plant. X     X
2. Salary of production manager at RIM………………………………………..   X   X
3. Salesperson’s commissions at Avon Products……………………….. X   X  
4. Insurance on one of Bombardier’s factory buildings…………………….   X   X
5. The costs of shipping brass fittings to customers in California……………………………….. X   X  
6. Depreciation on the bookshelves at Reston Bookstore……………….   X X  
7. The costs of X-ray film at the Toronto General’s radio-logy lab…………………………………………. X     X
8. The cost of leasing a toll-free telephone number at G.M. Canada…………………………………..   X X  
9. The depreciation on the playground equipment at a McDonald’s outlet………………….   X X  
10. The cost of the mozzarella cheese used at a Pizza Hut outlet………. X     X

Exercise 2-12 (15 minutes)

1. Direct labour cost: 35 hours × $14 per hour $490
  Manufacturing overhead cost: 5 hours × $14 per hour    70
  Total cost $560
     
2. Direct labour cost: 49 hours × $14 per hour $686
  Manufacturing overhead cost: 9 hours × $7 per hour    63
  Total cost $749

 

  1. The company could treat the cost of employee benefits relating to direct labour workers as part of manufacturing overhead. This approach spreads the cost of such benefits over all units of output. Alternatively,
    the company could treat the cost of employee benefits relating to direct labour workers as additional direct labour cost. This latter approach charges the costs of employee benefits to specific jobs rather than to all units of output.

 

 

Problem 2-13 (30 minutes)

  1. a-e
Item Behaviour  

 

Type

Direct/

 

Indirect

Leather used for the bicycle seats Variable Manufacturing Direct
Production manager’s salary Fixed Manufacturing Indirect
Life insurance for the company president   Administrative  
Electricity used in the production facilities* Variable/fixed Manufacturing Indirect
Sales commissions   Selling  
Internet advertising   Selling  
Employee benefits for the production workers Variable Manufacturing Indirect
Property taxes on the production facilities Fixed Manufacturing Indirect
Shipping costs   Administrative  
Salary of the chief financial officer   Administrative  

 

*There is a fixed and variable component to this cost. The base charge of $100 represents a fixed cost with the remainder varying with the level of production activity.

 

Problem 2-13 continued

  1. Unit costs for variable manufacturing expenses based on November (October) amounts:

 

Leather used in seats: $30,000 ($27,000) ÷ 1,000 (900) = $30/bike

Electricity: $1,000* ($900*) ÷ 1,000 (900) = $1/bike

Employee benefits: $20,000 ($18,000) ÷ 1,000 (900) = $20/bike

 

*$1,100 ($1,000) – $100 basic charge = $1,000 ($900).

 

December manufacturing costs:

 

 

 

Item

Per unit

 

Amount

 

 

Activity

 

 

Cost

Leather in seats (variable) $30 1,200 $36,000
Electricity (variable) $1 1,200 $1,200
Employee benefits (variable) $20 1,200 $24,000
Production manager’s salary (fixed) n/a 1,200 $6,000
Electricity (fixed) n/a 1,200 $100
Property taxes (fixed) n/a 1,200 $1,000

 

Problem 2-14 (30 minutes)

1. Total wages for the week:    
  Regular time: 40 hours × $24 per hour………………………………   $   960
  Overtime: 5 hours × $36 per hour……………………………………..       180
  Total wages…………………………………………………………………………..   $1,140
  Allocation of total wages:    
  Direct labour: 45 hours × $24 per hour……………………………..   $1,080
  Manufacturing overhead: 5 hours × $12 per hour……………..         60
  Total wages…………………………………………………………………………..   $1,140

 

2. Total wages for the week:    
  Regular time: 40 hours × $24 per hour………………………………   $   960
  Overtime: 10 hours × $36 per hour……………………………………       360
  Total wages…………………………………………………………………………..   $1,320
  Allocation of total wages:    
  Direct labour: 46 hours × $24 per hour……………………………..   $1,104
  Manufacturing overhead:    
  Idle time: 4 hours × $24 per hour…………………………………… $ 96  
  Overtime premium: 10 hours × $12 per hour………………….  120     216
  Total wages…………………………………………………………………………..   $1,320

 

3. Total wages and fringe benefits for the week:    
  Regular time: 40 hours × $24 per hour………………………………   $   960
  Overtime: 8 hours × $36 per hour……………………………………..   288
  Fringe benefits: 48 hours × $8 per hour……………………………..       384
  Total wages and fringe benefits…………………………………………….   $1,632
  Allocation of wages and fringe benefits:    
  Direct labour: 45 hours × $24 per hour……………………………..   $1,080
  Manufacturing overhead:    
  Idle time: 3 hours × $24 per hour…………………………………… $ 72  
  Overtime premium: 8 hours × $12 per hour…………………… 96  
  Fringe benefits: 48 hours × $8 per hour………………………….  384     552
  Total wages and fringe benefits…………………………………………….   $1,632

Problem 2-14 (continued)

4. Allocation of wages and fringe benefits:    
  Direct labour:    
  Wage cost: 45 hours × $24 per hour………………………….. $1,080  
  Fringe benefits: 45 hours × $8 per hour………………………     360 $1,440
  Manufacturing overhead:    
  Idle time: 3 hours × $24 per hour………………………………. 72  
  Overtime premium: 8 hours × $12 per hour……………….. 96  
  Fringe benefits: 3 hours × $8 per hour………………………..    24     192
  Total wages and fringe benefits……………………………………..   $1,632

 

Problem 2-15 (30 minutes)

Name of the Cost Variable Cost Fixed Cost Product Cost Period
(Selling and Admin.) Cost
Opportunity Cost Sunk Cost  
Direct Materials Direct Labour Mfg. Overhead  
 
Rental revenue forgone, $35,000 per year…………………………………..             X    
Direct materials cost, $50 per unit X   X            
Supervisor’s salary, $3,000 per month…………………………………….   X     X        
Direct labour cost, $22 per unit…. X     X          
Rental cost of warehouse, $1,500 per month……………………………….   X       X      
Rental cost of equipment, $2,200 per month……………………………….   X     X        
Depreciation of the building, $7,000 per year………………………   X     X     X  
Advertising cost, $28,000 per year   X       X      
Shipping cost, $7 per unit………….. X         X      
Electrical costs, $4 per unit………… X       X        
Return earned on investments, $5,000 per year………………………             X    

 

Problem 2-16 (20 minutes)

    Cost Behaviour   To Units of Product
  Cost Item Variable Fixed   Direct Indirect
1. Plastic washers used to assemble autos*……………… X       X
2. Production superintendent’s salary………………………   X     X
3. Wages of workers who assemble a product…………….. X     X  
4. Electricity to run production equipment………………. X       X
5. Janitorial salaries…………………………………………………..   X     X
6. Clay used to make bricks……………………………………… X     X  
7. Rent on a factory building…………………………………….   X     X
8. Wood used to make skis………………………………………. X     X  
9. Screws used to make furniture*……………………………. X       X
10. A supervisor’s salary……………………………………………..   X     X
11. Cloth used to make shirts…………………………………….. X     X  
12. Depreciation of cafeteria equipment…………………….   X     X
13. Glue used to make textbooks*……………………………… X       X
14. Lubricants for production equipment…………………… X       X
15. Paper used to make textbooks………………………………… X     X  

 

*These materials would usually be considered indirect materials because their costs are relatively insignificant. It would not be worth the effort to trace their costs to individual units of product and therefore they would usually be classified as indirect materials.

 

Problem 2-17 (60 minutes)

1.

Medco, Inc.
Schedule of Cost of Goods ManufacturedFor the year ended xxxx

 

 

Direct materials:    
Raw materials inventory, beginning…………………………. $ 10,000  
Add: Purchases of raw materials………………………………    90,000  
Raw materials available for use……………………………….. 100,000  
Deduct: Raw materials inventory, ending…………………    17,000  
Raw materials used in production……………………………   $ 83,000
Direct labour……………………………………………………………….   60,000
Manufacturing overhead:    
Depreciation, factory………………………………………………. 42,000  
Insurance, factory…………………………………………………… 5,000  
Maintenance, factory……………………………………………… 30,000  
Utilities, factory………………………………………………………. 27,000  
Supplies, factory……………………………………………………… 1,000  
Indirect labour…………………………………………………………    65,000  
Total overhead costs…………………………………………………..    170,000
Total manufacturing costs…………………………………………..   313,000
Add: Work in process inventory, beginning…………………        7,000
    320,000
Deduct: Work in process inventory, ending…………………      30,000
Cost of goods manufactured……………………………………….   $290,000

 

Problem 2-17 (continued)

2.

Medco, Inc.
Income StatementFor the year ended xxxx

 

 

Sales………………………………………………………………………………….   $450,000
Cost of goods sold:    
Finished goods inventory, beginning…………………………….. $ 10,000  
Add: Cost of goods manufactured………………………………….  290,000  
Goods available for sale………………………………………………… 300,000  
Deduct: Finished goods inventory, ending……………………..    40,000  260,000
Gross margin……………………………………………………………………..   190,000
Selling and administrative expenses:    
Selling expenses…………………………………………………………….. 80,000  
Administrative expenses…………………………………………………    70,000  150,000
Operating income……………………………………………………………..   $ 40,000

 

  1. Direct materials: $83,000 ÷ 10,000 units = $8.30 per unit.
    Depreciation: $42,000 ÷ 10,000 units = $4.20 per unit.

 

  1. Direct materials:
    Unit cost: $8.30 (unchanged)
    Total cost: 15,000 units × $8.30 per unit = $124,500.

Depreciation:
Unit cost: $42,000 ÷ 15,000 units = $2.80 per unit.
Total cost: $42,000 (unchanged)

 

  1. Unit cost for depreciation dropped from $4.20 to $2.80, because of the increase in production between the two years. Since fixed costs do not change in total as the activity level changes, they will decrease on a unit basis as the activity level rises.

 

  1. If the company produced 20,000 units then the following costs would appear in inventory:

Direct materials ($83,000/20,000)*4,000 units                 = $16,600

Direct labour ($60,000/20,000)* 4,000 units                   =   12,000

Manufacturing overhead ($170,000/20,000) * 4,000 units   = 34,000

Total                                                                          $62,600

Problem 2-18 (15 minutes)

  1. The controller is correct that the salary cost should be classified as a selling (marketing) cost. The duties described in the problem have nothing to do with manufacturing the product, but rather deal with order-taking and shipping finished goods to customers. As stated in the text, selling costs include all costs necessary to secure customer orders and get the finished product into the hands of customers.

 

  1. No, the president is not correct; how the salary cost is classified can affect the reported operating income for the year. If the salary cost is classified as a selling expense all of it will appear on the income statement as a period cost. However, if the salary cost is classified as a manufacturing (product) cost, then it will be added to Work in Process Inventory along with other manufacturing costs for the period. To the extent that goods are still in process at the end of the period, part of the salary cost will remain with these goods in the Work in Process Inventory account. Only that portion of the salary cost that has been assigned to finished units will leave the Work in Process Inventory account and be transferred into the Finished Goods Inventory account. In like manner, to the extent that goods are unsold at the end of the period, part of the salary cost will remain with these goods in the Finished Goods Inventory account. Only that portion of the salary that has been assigned to finished units that are sold during the period will appear on the income statement as an expense (part of Cost of Goods Sold) for the period.

 

Problem 2-19 (30 minutes)

1.           Period    
      Product Cost (Selling and    
  Variable Fixed Direct Direct Mfg. Admin.) Opportunity Sunk
Name of the Cost Cost Cost Materials Labour Overhead Cost Cost Cost
Todd’s present salary of $2,000 per month………………………………………….   X         X  
Rent on the production building, $1,500 per month………………………..   X     X      
Rent of production equipment, $550 per month…………………………………….   X     X      
Materials for producing brooms, at $11.50 each………………………………… X   X          
Labour cost of producing brooms, at $4.25 each………………………………….. X     X        
Rent of room for a sales office, $250 per month…………………………………….   X       X    
Voice mail, $5 per month…………………   X       X    
Interest lost on savings account, $1,100 per year……………………………             X  
Advertising cost, $450 per month……   X       X    
Sales commission, at $0.80 per broom…………………………………………. X         X    
Legal and filing fees, $1,500…………….   X       X   X

 

Problem 2-19 (continued)

  1. The $1,500 legal and filing fees are not a differential cost. These legal
    and filing fees have already been paid and are a sunk cost. Thus, the cost will not differ depending on whether Todd decides to produce
    brooms or to stay with the janitorial service. All other costs listed above are differential costs since they will be incurred only if Todd leaves the janitorial service and produces the brooms.

 

Problem 2-20 (45 minutes)

          Selling or        
  Cost Behaviour   Administrative   Product Cost
Cost Item Variable   Fixed   Cost   Direct   Indirect
Direct materials used (wood, glass)……………… $430,000               $430,000    
General office salaries………………………………….     $110,000     $110,000          
Factory supervision……………………………………..     70,000               $ 70,000
Sales commissions………………………………………. 60,000         60,000          
Depreciation, factory building……………………..     105,000               105,000
Depreciation, office equipment……………………     2,000     2,000          
Indirect materials, factory……………………………. 18,000                   18,000
Factory labour (cutting and assembly). 90,000               90,000    
Advertising…………………………………………………..     100,000     100,000          
Insurance, factory………………………………………..     6,000               6,000
General office supplies……………………………….. 4,000         4,000          
Property taxes, factory…………………………………     20,000               20,000
Utilities, factory……………………………………………    45,000                                                          45,000
Total costs………………………………………………….. $647,000   $413,000     $276,000     $520,000   $264,000

 

Problem 2-20 (continued)

  1. Only the product costs will be included in the cost of a bookcase. The cost per bookcase will be:

 

Direct product costs………………… $520,000
Indirect product costs………………  264,000
Total product costs………………….. $784,000

 

$784,000 ÷ 4,000 bookcases = $196 per bookcase

 

  1. The cost per bookcase would increase. This is because the fixed costs would be spread over fewer units, causing the cost per unit to rise.

 

  1. a. Yes, there probably would be a disagreement. The president is likely to want a price of at least $196, which is the average cost per unit to manufacture 4,000 bookcases. He may expect an even higher price than this to cover a portion of the administrative costs as well. The neighbour will probably be thinking of cost as including only materials used, or perhaps materials and direct labour.

 

  1. The term is opportunity cost. Since the company is operating at full capacity, the president must give up the full, regular price of a set to sell a bookcase to the neighbour. Therefore, the president’s cost is really the full, regular price of a set.

 

Problem 2-21 (15 minutes)

    Direct or Indirect Cost of the Immunization Centre   Direct or Indirect Cost of Particular Patients   Variable or Fixed with Respect to the Number of
Immunizations
Administered
Item Description Direct Indirect   Direct Indirect   Variable Fixed
a. The salary of the head nurse in the Immunization Centre…………………………………………………………… X       X     X
b. Costs of incidental supplies consumed in the Immunization Centre such as paper towels…… X       X   X  
c. The cost of lighting and heating the Immunization Centre…………………………………….. X       X     X
d. The cost of disposable syringes used in the Immunization Centre…………………………………….. X     X     X  
e. The salary of the Central Area Well-Baby Clinic’s Information Systems manager……………………….   X     X     X
f. The costs of mailing letters soliciting donations to the Central Area Well-Baby Clinic………………   X     X     X
g. The wages of nurses who work in the Immunization Centre*…………………………………… X       X     X
h. The cost of medical malpractice insurance for the Central Area Well-Baby Clinic…………………..   X     X     X
i. Depreciation on the fixtures and equipment in the Immunization Centre………………………………. X       X     X

* The wages of the nurses could be variable and a direct cost of serving particular patients.

 

Problem 2-22 (60 minutes)

1.

Veekay Company
Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured
For the Month Ended June 30 
Direct materials:    
Raw materials inventory, June 1………………………………. $ 19,000  
Add: Purchases of raw materials………………………………  209,000  
Raw materials available for use……………………………….. 228,000  
Deduct: Raw materials inventory, June 30………………..    46,000  
Raw materials used in production……………………………   $182,000
Direct labour……………………………………………………………….   99,000
Manufacturing overhead:    
Rent on facilities (85% × $40,000) …………………………. 34,000  
Insurance (90% × $10,000) ……………………………………. 9,000  
Utilities (80% × $55,000) ……………………………………….. 44,000  
Indirect labour………………………………………………………… 119,000  
Maintenance, factory……………………………………………… 8,000  
Depreciation, factory equipment……………………………..    13,000  
Total overhead costs…………………………………………………..    227,000
Total manufacturing costs…………………………………………..   508,000
Add: Work in process inventory, June 1………………………      77,000
    585,000
Deduct: Work in process inventory, June 30……………….      94,000
Cost of goods manufactured……………………………………….   $491,000

Problem 2-22 (continued)

2.

Veekay Company
Income Statement
For the Month Ended June 30 
Sales…………………………………………………………………………..   $660,000
Cost of goods sold:    
Finished goods inventory, June 1……………………………. $ 22,000  
Add: Cost of goods manufactured…………………………..  491,000  
Goods available for sale………………………………………….. 513,000  
Deduct: Finished goods inventory, June 30……………..    66,000  447,000
Gross margin………………………………………………………………   213,000
Selling and administrative expenses:    
Selling and administrative salaries…………………………… 39,000  
Rent on facilities (15% × $40,000)………………………….. 6,000  
Depreciation, sales equipment……………………………….. 11,000  
Insurance (10% × $10,000)…………………………………….. 1,000  
Utilities (20% × $55,000)………………………………………… 11,000  
Advertising………………………………………………………………    88,000  156,000
Operating income………………………………………………………   $ 57,000

 

  1. In preparing the income statement shown in the text, the accountant failed to distinguish between product costs and period costs, and also failed to recognize the change in inventories between the beginning and end of the month. Once these errors have been corrected, the financial condition of the company looks much better and continuing operations appears more attractive.

Problem 2-23 (30 minutes)

  1. Mr. Richart’s first action was to direct that discretionary expenditures be delayed until the first of the new year. Providing that these “discretionary expenditures” can be delayed without hampering operations, this is a good business decision. By delaying expenditures, the company can keep its cash a bit longer and thereby earn a bit more interest. There is nothing unethical about such an action. The second action was to ask that the order for the parts be cancelled. Since the clerk’s order was a mistake, there is nothing unethical about this action either.

 

The third action was to ask the accounting department to delay recognition of the delivery until the bill is paid in January. This action is du-bious. Asking the accounting department to ignore transactions strikes
at the heart of the integrity of the accounting system. If the accounting system cannot be trusted, it is very difficult to run a business or obtain funds from outsiders. However, in Mr. Richart’s defense, the purchase
of the raw materials really shouldn’t be recorded as an expense. He has been placed in an extremely awkward position because the company’s accounting policy is flawed.

 

  1. The company’s accounting policy with respect to raw materials is incorrect. Raw materials should be recorded as an asset when delivered ra-ther than as an expense. If the correct accounting policy were followed, there would be no reason for Mr. Richart to ask the accounting department to delay recognition of the delivery of the raw materials. This flawed accounting policy creates incentives for managers to delay deli-veries of raw materials until after the end of the fiscal year. This could lead to raw materials shortages and poor relations with suppliers who would like to record their sales before the end of the year.

 

The company’s “manage-by-the-numbers” approach does not foster ethical behaviour—particularly when managers are told to “do anything so long as you hit the target profits for the year.” Such “no excuses” pressure from the top too often leads to unethical behaviour when
managers have difficulty meeting target profits.

Problem 2-24 (60 minutes)

1.

Valenko Company
Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured 
Direct materials:      
Raw materials inventory, beginning………………….. $ 50,000    
Add: Purchases of raw materials……………………….  260,000    
Raw materials available for use………………………… 310,000    
Deduct: Raw materials inventory, ending………….    40,000    
Raw materials used in production…………………….   $270,000  
Direct labour………………………………………………………..   65,000 *
Manufacturing overhead:      
Insurance, factory……………………………………………. 8,000    
Rent, factory building………………………………………. 90,000    
Utilities, factory……………………………………………….. 52,000    
Cleaning supplies, factory………………………………… 6,000    
Depreciation, factory equipment……………………… 110,000    
Maintenance, factory……………………………………….    74,000    
Total overhead costs……………………………………………    340,000  
Total manufacturing costs……………………………………   675,000 (given)
Add: Work in process inventory, beginning………….      48,000 *
    723,000  
Deduct: Work in process inventory, ending…      33,000  
Cost of goods manufactured………………………………..   $690,000 **

** computed in Cost of Goods Sold section next page
Problem 2-24 (continued)

The cost of goods sold section of the income statement follows:

 

Finished goods inventory, beginning……………………………….. $ 30,000  
Add: Cost of goods manufactured…………………………………….  690,000 *
Goods available for sale…………………………………………………… 720,000 (given)
Deduct: Finished goods inventory, ending………………………..    85,000 *
Cost of goods sold…………………………………………………………… $635,000 (given)

 

*These items must be computed by working backwards up through the statements. An effective way of doing this is to place the form and known balances on the paper, and then work toward the un-
known figures.

 

  1. Direct materials: $270,000 ÷ 30,000 units = $9.00 per unit.
    Rent, factory building: $90,000 ÷ 30,000 units = $3.00 per unit.

 

  1. Direct materials:
    Per unit: $9.00 (unchanged)
    Total: 50,000 units × $9.00 per unit = $450,000.

 

Rent, factory building:
Per unit: $90,000 ÷ 50,000 units = $1.80 per unit.
Total: $90,000 (unchanged).

 

  1. The average cost per unit for rent dropped from $3.00 to $1.80, because of the increase in production between the two years. Since fixed costs do not change in total as the activity level changes, the average unit cost will decrease as the activity level rises.

 

Problem 2-25 (60 minutes)

  Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4
Direct materials $ 5,600 $10,400 $ 6,600 $ 7,600
Direct labour 1,600 4,600 5,500* 2,900
Manufacturing overhead   8,000  13,800*    7,700  20,000
Total manufacturing costs 15,200* 28,800 19,800 30,500*
Beginning work in process inventory 2,400* 1,200 2,200 1,300*
Ending work in process inventory   (3,200)   (4,000)   (4,400) *   (1,900)
Cost of goods manufactured $14,400 $26,000* $17,600 $29,900
         
Sales $20,000 $46,000 $33,000 $47,500
Beginning finished goods inventory 4,800 9,100* 7,700 8,600
Cost of goods manufactured  14,400  26,000*  17,600  29,900
Goods available for sale 19,200* 35,100* 25,300* 38,500*
Ending finished goods inventory    7,200*    4,600    5,500*    6,700
Cost of goods sold  12,000*  30,500  19,800  31,800*
Gross margin 8,000* 15,500* 13,200* 15,700*
Selling and administrative expenses    4,800    9,200*    9,900*   9,500
Operating income $ 3,200* $ 6,300 $ 3,300 $ 6,200*
 

 

*Missing data in the problem.

       

 

 

Problem 2-26 (45 minutes)

1.

Hickey Corporation
Schedule of Cost of Goods ManufacturedFor the year ended xxxx
Direct materials:    
Raw materials inventory, beginning…………………………. $ 20,000  
Add: Purchases of raw materials………………………………  160,000  
Raw materials available for use……………………………….. 180,000  
Deduct: Raw materials inventory, ending…………………    10,000  
Raw materials used in production……………………………   $170,000
Direct labour……………………………………………………………….   80,000
Manufacturing overhead:    
Indirect labour………………………………………………………… 60,000  
Building rent (80% × $50,000) ……………………………….. 40,000  
Utilities, factory………………………………………………………. 35,000  
Royalty on patent
($1 per unit × 30,000 units) …………………………………
30,000  
Maintenance, factory……………………………………………… 25,000  
Rent on equipment:
$6,000 + ($0.10 per unit × 30,000 units) …………….
9,000  
Other factory overhead costs…………………………………..    11,000  
Total overhead costs…………………………………………………..    210,000
Total manufacturing costs…………………………………………..   460,000
Add: Work in process inventory, beginning…………………      30,000
    490,000
Deduct: Work in process inventory, ending…………………      40,000
Cost of goods manufactured……………………………………….   $450,000

 

Problem 2-26 (continued)

  1. a. To compute the number of units in the finished goods inventory at the end of the year, we must first compute the number of units sold during the year.
Units in the finished goods inventory, beginning…………………. 0
Units produced during the year…………………………………………… 30,000
Units available for sale…………………………………………………………. 30,000
Units sold during the year (above) ………………………………………. 26,000
Units in the finished goods inventory, ending………………………   4,000

 

  1. The average production cost per unit during the year would be:

Thus, the cost of the units in the finished goods inventory at the end of the year would be: 4,000 units × $15 per unit = $60,000.

3.

Hickey Corporation

 

Income Statement

For the year ended xxxx

 

Sales…………………………………………………………………………………   $650,000  
Cost of goods sold:      
Finished goods inventory, beginning…………………………….. $         0    
Add: Cost of goods manufactured………………………………….  450,000    
Goods available for sale………………………………………………… 450,000    
Finished goods inventory, ending………………………………….    60,000  390,000  
Gross margin…………………………………………………………………….   260,000  
Selling and administrative expenses:      
Advertising……………………………………………………………………. 50,000    
Building rent (20% × $50,000)………………………………………. 10,000    
Selling and administrative salaries…………………………………. 140,000    
Other selling and administrative expense……………………….    20,000  220,000  
Operating income……………………………………………………………..   $ 40,000  

 

Case 2-27 (60 minutes)

  1. No distinction has been made between period expenses and product costs on the income statement. Product costs (e.g., direct materials, direct labour, and manufacturing overhead) should be assigned to inventory accounts and flow through to the income statement as cost of goods sold only when finished products are sold. Since there were ending inventories, some of the product costs should appear on the balance sheet as assets rather than on the income statement as expenses.

 

2.

Outdoor Living, Inc.
Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured
For the Quarter Ended June 30 
Direct materials:    
Raw materials inventory, beginning…………………………. $         0  
Add: Purchases of raw materials………………………………  217,000  
Raw materials available for use……………………………….. 217,000  
Deduct: Raw materials inventory, ending…………………    28,000  
Raw materials used in production……………………………   $189,000
Direct labour……………………………………………………………….   56,000
Manufacturing overhead:    
Cleaning supplies, factory……………………………………….. 4,000  
Indirect labour cost…………………………………………………. 91,000  
Maintenance, factory……………………………………………… 33,000  
Rental cost, facilities (90% × $50,000)…………………….. 45,000  
Insurance, factory…………………………………………………… 6,000  
Utilities (80% × $30,000)………………………………………… 24,000  
Depreciation, production equipment……………………….    53,000  
Total overhead costs…………………………………………………..    256,000
Total manufacturing costs…………………………………………..   501,000
Add: Work in process inventory, beginning…………………              0
    501,000
Deduct: Work in process inventory, ending…………………      21,000
Cost of goods manufactured……………………………………….   $480,000

 

Case 2-27 (continued)

  1. Before an income statement can be prepared, the cost of the 1,000 tents in the ending finished goods inventory must be determined.
    Altogether, the company produced 5,000 units during the quarter; thus, the production cost per unit would be:

 

Since 1,000 tents (5,000 – 4,000 = 1,000) were in the ending finished goods inventory, the total cost of this inventory would be:

1,000 units × $96 per unit = $96,000.

With this figure and other data from the case, the company’s income statement for the quarter can be prepared as follows:

 

Outdoor Living, Inc.
Income Statement
For the Quarter Ended June 30
     
Sales…………………………………………………………………………   $683,000
Cost of goods sold:    
Finished goods inventory, beginning……………………. $         0  
Add: Cost of goods manufactured ………………………..  480,000  
Goods available for sale ………………………………………. 480,000  
Deduct: Finished goods inventory, ending ……………   96,000  384,000
Gross margin…………………………………………………………….   299,000
Selling and administrative expenses:    
Selling and administrative salaries………………………… 63,000  
Advertising…………………………………………………………… 140,000  
Rental cost, facilities (10% × $50,000)………………….. 5,000  
Depreciation, office equipment……………………………. 13,000  
Utilities (20% × $30,000)……………………………………… 6,000  
Travel, salespersons………………………………………………    42,000  269,000
Operating income…………………………………………………….   $ 30,000

 

 

 

Case 2-27 (continued)

Note: the difference between the $30,000 operating income above and the $115,000 loss reported by the company in the case can be reconciled as follows:

 

Operating loss reported by company             $(115,000)

Add back:

Ending inventory raw materials                        28,000

Ending inventory work in process               21,000

Ending inventory finished goods                 96,000

Operating income                                                           $ 30,000

 

  1. No, the insurance company probably does not owe Outdoor Living $159,600. The key question is how “cost” was defined in the insurance contract. It is most likely that the insurance contract limits reimbursement for losses to those costs that would normally be considered product costs—in other words, direct materials, direct labour, and manufacturing overhead. The $159,600 figure is overstated since it includes elements of selling and administrative expenses as well as all of the product costs. The $159,600 figure also does not recognize that some costs incurred during the period are in the ending Raw Materials and Work in Process inventory accounts, as explained in part (1) above. The insurance company’s liability is probably just $96,000, which is the amount of cost associated with the ending Finished Goods inventory as shown in part (3) above.

 

 

Case 2-28 (30 minutes)

  1. Differential revenues:
  • The rental revenue that will be received from sub-letting 15% of the new warehouse.
  • Sales proceeds (less real estate commissions, legal fees, etc.) received from selling old warehouse.

 

Differential costs:

  • Monthly lease payments for the new warehouse.
  • Utility costs (expected to be lower at new warehouse).
  • Property taxes (none paid at new building).
  • Building insurance (none paid at new building).
  • Maintenance and repair costs (likely lower at new building).
  • Salary of current maintenance manager (won’t be needed if PE moves to the new building).

 

Note: some students may want to also include the inventory insurance costs and the security personnel costs as differential costs. However, the facts of the case indicate that Reg does not believe these costs will change if the new warehouse is rented. As a result, these are not differential costs.

 

 

 

  1. An opportunity cost is a potential benefit given up when one alternative is chosen over another. If PE sells the old warehouse they will incur an opportunity cost equal to the operating income currently being earned on the small parking lot set up on one corner of the property.

 

  1. The depreciation expense represents a sunk cost because it represents the allocation to reporting periods of the original depreciable cost of the old warehouse. It should not be considered in deciding whether to lease the new warehouse. Because that original cost cannot be changed it is a sunk cost, and thus so too is the depreciation of that original cost.

 

 

 

 

Research and Application

R2-29 and R2-30 are suggested research questions concerning actual financial statement disclosures. No answers are provided because the specifics depend on the particular company and the time period examined in the research.